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Nutrition in weight management

Body weight is the sum of bone, muscle, organs, body fluids, and adipose tissue. Body weight changes due to growth, reproductive status, variation in exercise levels, and the effects of aging.

Body weight is maintained by:

  • Neural,
  • hormonal, and
  • chemical mechanisms
  • Genetic polymorphism

These keeps the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure within fairly precise limits.

 

Set point  is the weight range in which your body is programmed to function optimally. 

Set point theory holds that one’s body will fight to maintain that weight range.

Some studies suggests that

  • Deliberate efforts to starve or overfeed are followed by a rapid return to the original body weight
  • Body weight can be displaced only temporarily and that resting metabolic rate lowers, resulting in body weight returning
  • Other studies suggests that it is the energy imbalance that effects body weight, when balance returns body weight returns

WEIGHT IMBALANCE : OBESITY AND OVRWEIGHT

  • Overweight and obesity a result of an imbalance between food consumed and physical activity
  • Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.
  • But obesity is a complex issue related to lifestyle, environment, and genes

Management of Obesity in adults:

  • First came energy restricted diet then lifestyle modification and then physical activity
  • Weight reduction program which include: food choices, lifestyle modification and exercise
  • Pharmacologic treatment and surgical treatment are appropriate in some circumstances but not a substitute of above methods

Rate and extent of weight loss

  • Reduction of body weight involves loss of both protein and fats
  • A drastic reduction in calories resulting in a high rate of weight loss can mimic the starvation response
  • Steady weight loss over a longer period favors
  1. reduction of fat stores,
  2. limits the loss of vital protein tissues, and
  3.  avoids the sharp decline in RMR that accompanies rapid weight reduction