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Osteoporosis

  • Osteopenia: When BMD falls sufficiently below healthy values according to WHO standards.
  • Osteoporosis occurs when the BMD becomes so low (greater than 2.5 SDs below healthy values) that the skeleton is unable to sustain ordinary strains
  • Osteoporosis may have its origin in early life during the period of skeletal growth and PBM accumulation
  • women are about four times more likely than men to develop osteoporosis but with ageing both lose bone mass and become prone to fractures

Types of osteoporosis

  • Primary osteoporosis
  1. Type 1
  2. Type 2
  • Secondary osteoporosis

Nutrition Management

  • Adequate calcium intake
  • Adequate vitamin D intake from food, supplements and sun exposure
  • Avoidance of excess phosphorus
  • A balanced diet that provides adequate protein, energy and micronutrients
  • Exercise